The Universe and Galaxies: Mars

Discovery Space: Mars Mars is only half as large as the Earth, and it is enclosed by a thin atmosphere. From all the planets of the solar system, its surface conditions are closest to those on Earth-so it has long been of great interest to science. Mars is 1.5 times further from the sun than … Read more

The Universe and Galaxies: The Earth-Moon System

Discovery Space: The Earth-Moon System The Earth and moon were forced into coexistence by the collision that created the moon. Since then their movements have been closely interwoven. They influence each other, creating diverse phenomena. The diameter of the moon is four times small to than that of the Earth. In comparison, the moons of … Read more

The Universe and Galaxies: The Moon

Discovery Space: The Moon No other celestial body is as close to Earth as the moon. It has been comprehensively explored, but some of its secrets have still not been revealed. The surface of the moon, scarred with craters, provides a glimpse of what the Earth might have looked some four billion years ago. At … Read more

UNIVERSE: the solar system: Mercury and Venus

Discovery Space: Mercury and Venus Mercury and Venus are relatively close to the sun, so both are scorching hot. Neither one has any moons. Other than that, they are very different. Venus—in contrast to Mercury—has a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Mercury is the innermost and smallest planet of the solar system. Its surface is marked … Read more

The Universe and Galaxies: Solar Research

Discovery Space: Solar Research Many phenomena related to the sun can be observed and studied from Earth. A more detailed investigation of developing solar magnetic fields and flares is, however, made possible by the use of space probes and satellites. Ancient cultures observed and studied the position of the sun throughout the year, recording important … Read more

UNIVERSE – the Solar System: Cosmic Weather

Discovery Space: Cosmic Weather The sun is not merely a source of light and heat to its surrounding environment. Solar radiation is a factor that influences many cosmic and terrestrial phenomena, some of which can be harmful. The planetary system is surrounded by the sun’s magnetic field and by solar radiation. The latter includes mainly … Read more

The Universe and Galaxies: The Sun – Magnetic fields and Solar Wind

Discovery Space: Magnetic fields and Solar Wind The sun’s influence extends far into space. The complex magnetic field of the sun changes continuously within cycles that last several years. These are tied into various phenomena, such as the formation of sunspots. The hot plasma (gas) of the sun consists of electrically charged particles. The sun … Read more


Discovery Space: The Sun The sun is the star central to both our planetary system and our lives as a huge power station providing the Earth with warmth and light. Its particle radiation generates the beautiful auroras (northern lights or southern lights) in the Earth’s atmosphere, but can also cause damage to electronics, satellites, and … Read more

The solar system: Orbits of Celestial Bodies

Discovery Space: Orbits of Celestial Bodies The objects of the solar system come in all kinds of shapes and can be classified by size, type, and orbit. The sun and all the celestial objects orbiting it, including the planets, make up the solar system. Their movements are more or less in the same plane and … Read more

Universe: the solar system

Discovery Space: The Solar System The Earth and many other celestial bodies orbit the sun like a merry-go-round. These celestial objects each differ in the nature of their orbits, from the close circling of the planets to the elongated paths of more distant comets. Disks of Dust and Planets In certain parts of the universe, … Read more