# Scientists find the secret to making delicious coffee

To get a satisfactory cup of coffee, you need to combine many factors from mixing ingredients, boiling water to preparation.

In a paper published in the scientific journal Matter, a team of authors developed a method for making espresso based on mathematical models and experiments.

According to research results, the taste of a cup of coffee depends on the quality of the coffee beans, the chemical composition of the water, the roasting process and the brewing method . In which raw materials account for 50%.

Scientists have found the secret to making delicious, uniform quality coffee. (Image: Getty Images).

To make espresso, hot water is forced through a layer of finely ground coffee. The barista will decide how much coffee and water to use and how finely ground the ingredients are. Water pressure, temperature and brew dosage also greatly affect the taste. All of these factors control the relative proportions of about 2,000 different chemicals present in a cup of coffee.

However, the same process, the same bartender, the taste of each cup of coffee is also different. So the scientists wanted to figure out how to control quality through mathematical modeling .

The team consists of mathematicians, chemists, materials scientists and bartenders. They created simulations of espresso brewing under real-world conditions, predicting extraction yield (ratio of instant coffee when brewed). This is an index used in the coffee industry to differentiate recipes.

After solving a series of complex problems, the authors found that the mathematical model accurately predicted the extraction yield in most cases, with the exception of very finely ground coffee.

In that situation, the water does not penetrate evenly as it passes through the coffee layer, resulting in parts that are over-extracted, but partially under-extracted.

Contrary to previous predictions, the results show that in order to have good, uniform quality coffee, baristas should use less coffee and not grind too fine. When the amount of coffee is reduced, the water penetrates more easily and evenly. Raw coffee powder helps to extract the chemical composition from raw materials just right, in accordance with the calculated model, with little deviation. From there, the coffee is made faster, the color is bright, sweet and the acidity is uniform every time.

Of course, not everyone likes the same taste of coffee. Therefore, the authors propose a variety of brewing processes, allowing employees to actively create the desired flavor.

In addition, the new process reduces the amount of coffee residue by up to 25% after each espresso. This greatly increases the profits of coffee shops, but still does not reduce quality. According to the authors, for the US market alone, it could save .1 billion.