Discovery Science: Manufacturing Technology – Recycling and Disposal

Manufacturing Technology – Recycling and Disposal

Disposing of garbage and unwanted goods is expensive. Increases in waste, environmental pollution and shortages of raw materials have resulted in improvements in waste management and recycling.

Industrial countries produce more waste now than ever before. To protect against contamination and damage, almost all manufactured goods are sold in packaging. To lower production costs and reduce the environmental impact, many packages are designed to save space and weigh less during transport.

In addition to the packaging creating more waste, the product itself will eventually break or become obsolete, turning into another piece of waste. To compound these environmental effects, many products are made of synthetic materials that either do not decompose, or emit poisonous substances into the environment during decomposition.

Waste disposal

We are developing new ways to counteract and limit the effects of hazardous waste in the environment. To protect groundwater, waste disposal sites are built on an impermeable base or artificial foundation. Incineration of waste is used to produce energy while reducing the waste to an environmentally safe form, although toxic gases are still likely to be released.

To determine the best method for disposal, certain factors must be taken into consideration, including the type of waste, its potential for causing harm, and the costs incurred. Certain waste products, such as radioactive waste, cannot be disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner.

Recycling and downcycling

The process of manufacturing new products of value from waste or scrap is known as recycling. Refilling used ink cartridges is a classic example. Downcycling is the process of using waste to manufacture products of lesser value than the original, as for example, in using chopped up synthetic or plastic packaging for the production of concrete instead of just cement.

Because recycling procedures are labor-intensive and have high technical requirements, an effective conservation program requires genuine commitment and involvement from every member of society.


The reuse and recycling of glass has a long history. Whole or broken glass containers may be melted down and either mixed with new raw materials or used as-is to form new products, depending on the quality level required.

Sorting glass by type and color generally makes recycling easier. Most European countries currently recycle more than half of their used glass containers


RECYCLING OF PAPER While cardboard can be made from low- quality paper that has been recycled many times, high-quality recycled paper is used for newspapers, hygiene products, and packaging.

Because paper fibers become shorter with every reuse, printing paper must be made using a substantial portion of fresh pulp.