Discovery Science: Earth Human – Puberty and Aging

Earth Science: Human – Puberty and Aging

Puberty and aging are both phases of transition in the human life cycle: during puberty, the body reaches sexual maturity, while aging leads to a gradual loss of life functions.

Girls will normally experience puberty, and the associated changes in their body, mind, and emotional state, at the age of ten to eleven. Boys can expect this to happen about a year later. During this phase in life, the sexual organs mature and begin to produce sperm or egg cells. Girls also experience their first menstruation.

Secondary sex organs and characteristics develop (including breasts, pubic and underarm hair, facial hair, and voice changes). These physical changes are triggered by hormone signals from the pituitary gland (hypophysis), which tell the body to produce more sex hormones.

Changes become evident not only on the physical level, but also on an emotional level. Many adolescents look for new social ties outside the family; mood swings, the feeling of being misunderstood, and insecurity are all normal and common during this time of sexual orientation and beginning sex drive.


Aging is a biological process that begins at birth and gradually proceeds until death. Why people age is still unknown, and many researchers continue to study the phenomenon and test various theories of its possible causes. Scientists have found that cells can only divide a certain number of times before they die.

This leads to the conclusion that cell death and aging are genetically predetermined or programmed. According to another theory, cells may also be damaged-and thus unable to properly reproduce and replicate themselves—by so-called free radicals, which are highly reactive oxygen compound ions.

The body’s defense mechanism is able to render these radicals harmless, but the limits to the effectiveness of this defense and repair system are thought to be genetically predefined. In addition, various other biochemical and physiological processes, psychological factors, and, of course, the individual lifestyle of every person significantly affect the very complicated process of aging.

As an essential part of human society, aging also reflects cultural and societal conventions.


Women between the age of 45 and 55 will normally experience a period of change called menopause (climacterium).

This phase marks the end of a woman’s fertile phase in life and frequently causes hormonal imbalances resulting in discomfort due to hot flashes and sleep disorders. Men can experience this phase as a so-called midlife crisis.


INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY find aging are causing problems in many Western countries For example, the high percentage of older people in the total population hi .

increased the proportion of people affected by dementia (estimated to be almost 25 million worldwide) Another unsolved problem is the increasing social isolation of the elderly


LIFE EXPECTANCY has more than doubled in the last 150 years in many industrialized countries. In the U.S., it is 77 years: in Japan, it is even higher than 80.