The Origin of Mankind

The origin of man remains the greatest mystery to mankind. … Looking back at other species on Earth, none have had such a problem.

Today, most scientists agree that humans have evolved from apes through three basic types. Those three types are:

The Origin of Mankind
Human evolution.

Australopithecus was the first hominid, living at least 3-4 million years ago. Representative is the fossil of Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis), discovered in 1974, dating from 3.85 to 2.95 million years. They are more like monkeys than we are.

3.0 to 1.5 million years ago, when apes knew how to make tools, they were called humans. The first group of humans was named Homo habillis (Skillful People), not because they were really skillful, but because they knew how to make tools better than apes. Skillful people know how to make tools for crushing seeds, cutting meat, etc.

1.8 million years ago, humans evolved to use fire, making more complex cutting tools known as Homo erectus. This species has originated in Africa (possibly Southeast Asia) and spread as far as Britain, Georgia, India, Sri Lanka, China and Java. Some representatives such as: Homo heidelbergensis, Javan Man, Peking Man, etc. This species is now extinct.

About 200,000 years ago in East Africa began to appear Homo sapiens (Saints). The Wise Man looked like today’s humans, knew how to wear clothes.

The Origin of Mankind

Roberts traveled to Namibia, home to the Kalahari Bushes, the last hunter-gatherer tribe on the continent, to demonstrate how the Chimpanzees had evolved for a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. She follows them on their hunt, explaining that when they run after animals, the body has many mechanisms that make them more resilient than animals. For example, sweating reduces body temperature, so it takes longer to get tired, while hunted animals (such as deer, deer, etc.) do not have a sweat-secreting mechanism, so they get tired quickly. They can chase them until they can’t run anymore. Or the arch of the foot has a curved arch that makes the foot more flexible. Regular running helps to develop strong butt muscles. They have a language that sounds like a rattle, lots of consonants. They know how to plan the hunt, etc. These evolutions and adaptations have really helped modern humans adapt to the hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Different from the life of climbing, swinging in the trees when the rainforest is still dense. That evolution, helped them survive and disperse across the continent.

She visited the site of Omo in Ethiopia, where the earliest anatomically modern human specimen was discovered. Near the Nyangatom tribe’s village of Kibish, paleontologists found the 195,000-year-old skull of H. sapiens, which lived in the North African desert, different from Homo heidelbergensis (of Homo erectus) about 500,000 years old. Homo heidelbergensis may be a common ancestor of H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis.

In South Africa, she visited the caves at Pinnacle Point where archaic humans lived. In the 130,000 – 167,000-year-old soil in Cape Town, South Africa, discovered a type of spear with prongs, to calculate more damage. So 160,000 years ago, H. sapiens lived a lot in Africa.

She then explains that genetics suggests that all non-Africans (non-Africans) may be descended from a single small group from Africa who left the continent tens of thousands of people. last year. She explores different theories about the path they took. About 125,000 years ago, the desert became greener, allowing Modern humans to cross Mount Sinai into the Arabian peninsula. In 1930, in Skul Cave, Israel, a tomb dating back 100,000 years was discovered. This branch appears to be completely dead, probably due to a cold in the Middle East.

About 90,000 years ago, the Arabian peninsula and Africa reverted to desert. Sea level is 120 m lower now. The Red Strait is now 30 km wide, then only 11 km wide. Several hundred people crossed the strait, possibly a single tribe.

About 70,000 – 12,000 years ago, discovering stone tools in Oman like the Somerset River valley, these areas have water, Modern people traveled along the coast of the Arabian peninsula, into Mesopotamia and then radiated away. around the world.

The peoples of the world, seem to be descended from a group of about 100 individuals who left East Africa 70,000 years ago across the Horn of Africa.

Past studies show that Homo sapiens traveled along the coast of the Arabian peninsula, through the Iranian plateau into Central Asia, followed the skyscrapers to the right, and entered Siberia about 40,000 years ago. About 30,000 years ago, they reached the shores of the Arctic Ocean. There is a branch that goes along the coast of South Asia, then goes along Southeast Asia to go up to China.

In the second episode, Roberts travels to Siberia and visits an isolated indigenous community, the Evenki people who still subsist on reindeer hunting. Comparing their way of life in extreme cold, different from warm Africa, she wondered how ancient Africans were able to adapt to the very icy North Asian climate and why Asians looks very different from Africans. The Evenki of cold Siberia made very warm shoes out of reindeer skin. Bone sewing needles were found about 40,000 years ago. If you want to survive the cold, you must have clothes and shoes to keep warm. They were the world’s first tailors.

Ancient Africans followed animals to hunt. Found reindeer bones (have been eaten) from ancient times. The peak of the ice age was about 25,000 years ago, minus 80 0 C, the climate was dry. They retired to Malta, South Siberia. In the Hermitage Museum, Petecbua, displays flat skeletons, very small people, due to lack of food. There is a pair of Mamut ivory Swans, why did they make Swans. When the swan returns, it signals the beginning of spring. Spring has come to start hunting. Showing that they live in the cold winter, lack of food, they look forward to spring. Extreme conditions cause bones to shrink.

At the beginning of the Last Ice Age, the face of East Asians changed. Almond-shaped eyes, flatter face, smaller nose. Because of the cold, the eyes are small to reduce heat loss from the eyes.

The Origin of Mankind
The 30,000-year-old wise man in Hang Thuong, China.

Later, Roberts led the discovery that there was a different theory from the ” leave Africa” one. It is the “multi-regional origin of modern humans” hypothesis that has gained support from several groups of scientists in China. According to this theory, the Chinese descended from the indigenous Homo erectus and not from the African Homo sapiens as the evolution of other peoples.

Roberts visited the Zhoukoudian cave, where the Peking Man was discovered, a species of Homo erectus believed to be the ancestor of the Chinese. According to Prof. Wu Xin Zhi (Ngo Tan Chi) human remains in the Dove Cave, known as the Peking Man belonging to H. erectus, aged from 500,000 to 200,000 years, they have no descendants and are extinct. The 30,000-year-old Upper cave man belonged to H. sapiens from Africa. H. erectus China flat face, flat nose, lower edge of eye socket is also flat. The Chinese strongly believe that they have different origins from other peoples. Roberts found that the physical features of modern Chinese and fossil skulls, such as broad cheekbones, skull shape, and shovel-shaped incisors, were absent in most people. other. Perhaps it was due to geographical conditions.

She also found that the stone tools found in China were more primitive than elsewhere, and deduced that they were produced solely from native Homo erectus. However, she notes that the evidence from the skull is for reference only. She interviews an American archaeologist, who hypothesizes that the ancient Chinese used bamboo instead of stone, to explain the absence of sophisticated stone tools, although there is no archaeological evidence yet. studies support this hypothesis.

Finally, Roberts interviews Chinese geneticist Jin Li (Jin Li, 金力), Fudan University, Shanghai. The China-based moderator of the Human Genome Project, studied DNA samples from more than 12,000 individuals scattered across China from 160 ethnic groups. Compare that to a sample of the male gene, which appeared only 80,000 years ago in Africa. The study initially hypothesized that modern Chinese evolved from Homo erectus native to China, but in fact concluded that the Chinese did not evolve from the Peking man (Homo pekinensis). but also migrated from Africa to like the rest of the world’s population.

In Tong Phien Cave, Guilin, there are relics of pottery used for cooking and rice cultivation 9,000 years ago. Shows that there is settlement, there is civilization.

In Eastern Transylvania, there is the Pestera cu Oase cave, a 1.5-day drive from Bucaret, Romania. In 2002, people discovered the cave, this is a cave with water, called Xuong cave because of the 40,000-year-old Homo sapiens skull, named Oase skull . Characteristics, teeth are harder, face rougher than people today. Criminologist Richard Neave restored the skull. It is shown that H. sapiens arrived in Europe about 45,000 years ago. On the coast of Ucagizli there are seashells 42,000 years old. The route they may have taken from Africa was through the Middle East to Southern Türkiye. Roberts has continued down that path.

The Origin of Mankind
Roberts and Oase skull reconstruction.

She passed through the Bosphorus (the strait between Asia and Europe in Turkey) and up the Danube, along the possible route of H. sapiens that entered Europe about 45,000 years ago.

Bosphorus Strait, 40,000 – 50,000 years ago, sea level was still low, walkable. There actually existed a special woman 40,000 years ago, we named her mother Europa, because she left her genes behind. Today 10% of Europeans can trace their genes back. This 10% of Europeans are her descendants. When the Wise Men entered Europe, the Danuyps River was a gateway to the New World.

When the Chimpanzees entered Europe 40,000-45,000 years ago, the land was already owned. Neanderthals lived there, ranging from Siberia to Spain.

The Origin of Mankind
Roberts and the Neanderthal model.

Neanderthals were slow and unintelligent, muscular, cold-adapted, large brains, good at hunting, very sharp cutting tools.

Modern tools are more compact, safer for users. The javelin of the Wise Man only needed to stand from afar to be able to launch to kill wild animals, while the Neanderthal’s tool had to be close to the beast to do any damage. They also discovered a mammoth ivory flute, dating from 40,000 to 50,000 years ago of the Chimpanzees.

Neanderthals and Chimps lived together in the Lohne valley. So why did the Neanderthals go extinct, and the Chimpanzees have survived and thrived to this day.

Chimpanzees have higher community intelligence, artistic creativity, more effective tools, and more concentrated distribution. As a result, they adapted more effectively than Neanderthals. Gradually the Neanderthals dwindled in population, shrinking their territories. They were herded to the Gibraltar region, eventually becoming extinct.

25,000 years ago, there was a second migration, from the east into Europe, called the Iris maternal migration. In Doln, Vestonice, Czech Republic, ivory was found engraved as a map; Venus Doln, Vestonice, the first ceramic statue. Today, two-thirds of Europeans are descended from their mother Iris.

Neandertals disappeared about 24,000 years ago. Robert takes us to Gibraltar, which is known for the remains of the last Neanderthals. At that time, the sea level was 100m lower than it is now.

24,000 years ago, at the height of the ice age, England was 1/2 mile thick, minus 20 0C. H. sapiens in Europe had to hide in caves. They also left behind cave paintings in Lascaux, dated to about 16,000 years old. About 100 generations patiently lived in the cave until the earth warmed again.

She discusses theories that explain why Europeans have white skin. Because Europe has less sunshine than Africa. And lack of light also causes vitamin D deficiency, some skeletons have been found with rickets.

Spectacular Neolithic temples at Göbekli Tepe in southeastern Türkiye, dating back 10,000 years. Göbekli Tepe Temple, a form of sky burial. There is a settlement of herd hunters. Shows the settlement and the birth of agriculture, changing social activities.

(to be continued)…