Discovery Science: Intelligent Machines and The Networked World – The Internet

Intelligent Machines and The Networked World – The Internet

The word Internet derives from “Interconnected Network.” Its advanced technology allows connected computers in large or small networks around the globe to exchange data. Countless applications rest on this foundation.

The Internet is a specialized network of connections and computers. It links smaller computer networks around the world, such as the local networks maintained by businesses or universities.

The dawn of the Internet age

The research that eventually gave rise to the Internet commenced in the United States during the 1950s. It was conducted by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. In 1969.

ARPANET-an experimental computer network connecting four universities—was put in service. Additional networks were then gradually connected, and enhanced technologies and services such as electronic mail (e-mail) were introduced. Thanks to technology standardization and rising international interest, the Internet ultimately emerged.

Protocols for data transport

The transmission of data between computers is regulated by Internet Protocol (IP). The data is broken up and transmitted in smaller packets. Subnetworks within the Internet are connected through routers. Packets include the addresses of the sender and receiver. These IP addresses consist of a series of numbers separated by periods, such as

If a data packet is not addressed to the router’s home network, it is passed along to other networks. There are numerous other protocols in addition to IP For instance, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) ensures that the data reaches the right application program in the receiving computer

Domain names

IP addresses, with their long strings of numbers, are not very user-friendly. As a result, the Domain Name System (DNS) was developed to assign a unique domain name to each IP address. Name servers translate between the two.

When a user enters a domain name, the application program requests the corresponding IP address from the name server.


What happens with the Internet is determined by numerous associations. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) handles organizational and technical problems. It develops protocols, routing techniques, and security guidelines.
Network Information Centers as- sign Internet addresses. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) focuses on the standards with which Web sites are programmed and transmitted.


THE INTERNET is often thought to be equivalent to its applications, such as the World Wide Web. In fact, it is the transport system for data that makes these applications possible.